CAODAISME

RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES

1. On the occasion of the festival of the Goddess "Dieu-Tri Kim-Mau, Caodaist High Dignitaries arrive at the Temple of the Holy See at midnight.
2 .  The Temple is packed: not all the faithful can find a place inside
3 . The High Dignitaries of the Executive Body / Cuu-Trung-Dai before the midnight ceremony - Mid-Autumn 1948
4 . Female Dignitaries praying
5 . Some dignitaries make an offering to the Holy Mother / Goddess "Dieu-Tri Kim-Mau"
6 . The Faithful gather piously during the ceremony

7 .  A scene from the ritual: the flower offering / Dang Hoa. (To the right an Archbishop in prayer)

8 . His Holiness "Pham Cong Tac" wearing his ceremonial costume and sitting upon his throne during the ceremony

9. After the ceremony (later that night) a display of cake. Observers mix.

10 . His Holiness "Pham Cong Tac" M. "Tran Quang Vinh" and M. Debril, Commander of the Tay Ninh Army, converse after the conclusion of the ceremony.

11. The General Staff of the Caodaist Army. In the centre M. "Tran Quang Vinh," Commander-in-chief (in pith helmet) and M. "Le Van Hoach" former president of the Republic of Cochinchina (in shorts).

CAO-DAI RELIGION

(Tay Ninh)
Tay Ninh Holy See Temple (18 - 9 - 1948)

12. General View of The Cuu-Trung-Dai / the nave (interior).

13. Architectural detail from the temple of Nine Degrees (ie Cuu TrungDai)

14. Architectural details above the central nave. One can see in the centre from top to bottom the saints: Sakyamuni Buddha, Ly Thai Bach (Li-Po), Jesus Christ and Khuong Thai Cong (Jiang Jia). On the left the goddess Quan Am (Quan Yin) and Lao Tzu. On the right Confucius and Quan Cong (Guan Gong).

15. The table for offerings.

16. The principal entrance of the Holy See, Tay Ninh.

17. General View of the Temple (mixing many styles).

18.  View of the front towers.

19. Interior View of the side verandah.

20. A design from the left verandah.

21. The nave with a view of the objects used during worship.

22. The Celestial Globe with the Eye of God: Symbolic of the omnipresence of God, the Eye conveys that which is good and wards off evil.

23. Dragons appear on the columns of the nave, they represent the comprehension of the mysteries.

24. At the Temple entrance a sign requests members to remove their shoes.

25. Statue of the first female Cardinal of Caodaism, The Venerable Lam Huong Thanh.

26. The Papal Throne and the six seats of the cardinals.

27. The Celestial Globe and the votive tablets.

28. Side entrance of the temple (exterior view).

29. The Eight-sided tower (Bat-Quai-Dai). (Surmounted by the three Indian gods: Brahma, Shiva and Krishna).

30. The pulpit adorns one of the columns.

31. The tomb of a Caodaist Archbishop.

32. The tomb of the Grand Dignitary Cao Thuong Pham.

33. The tomb of the first Acting Pope Le Van Trung.

34. The mural representing the Three Saints - placed at the entrance of the Temple. - From left to right: Sun Yat Sen/Ton Trung Son founder of the Chinese Republic, Victor Hugo (In Vietnamese: Nguyet-Tam Chon-Nhon) and Nguyen Binh Khiem, a famous nationalist poet and prophet from the 16th Century, know to the Vietnamese as Trang Trinh.

CAODAISM IN TAY NINH
BUILDINGS AND MONUMENTS

35. The Statue of Sakyamuni Buddha. Buddhist lore tells of how Prince Siddartha Gottama left the royal palace of his father in search of the religious life. In this photo we see the sculpture representing the Buddha-to-be leaving the palace on his horse. Behind him his attendant is running to catch up and pleading with him to return. The prince ignores these pleas and does not return.

36. The statue of Sakyamuni Buddha.

37. View of a Caodaist village near the Holy See.

38. A class being held in the school of the Holy See.

39. Another class in the school of the Holy See.

40. The Orphanage at the Holy See.

41. Orphans outside the Orphanage.

42. The Children's refectory.

43. The Worker's refectory.

44. The Office of the General Staff of the Caodaist Army

45. The Temple of the Buddha Mother.

46. Office of the Provisions and Administrative Services Branch of the Religion.

47. The Office of the Legislative Body.

48. Office for Internal Services.

49. Guard-post at the entrance of the Holy See.

50. The Social Service branch.

SOCIAL ACTIVITIES AT THE HOLY SEE

64. At the saw mill.

65. Wood working.

66. Cooking

67. Masonry

68. Tailoring.

69. The Market.

70. At the market...

71. One can find all sorts of provisions and foodstuffs.

CEREMONIAL HEADDRESS

72. Grand ceremonial headdress of His Holiness the Ho Phap

73. Eight-sided head piece / Bat-Quai-Mao (ceremonial headdress for an Archbishop).

74. Eight-sided head piece / Bat-Quai-Mao (ceremonial headdress for an Archbishop).

75. Eight-sided head piece / Bat-Quai-Mao (ceremonial headdress for an Archbishop).

76. Ceremonial headdress for Bishops: on the right, a Hiep Chuong Mao on the left a Thien Nguon Mao.

77. Headdress for those whose rank is equivalent to Cardinal. Used during minor ceremonies, a Tam Quang Mao.

78. Headdress for those whose rank is equivalent to Cardinal. Used during minor ceremonies, a Tam Quang Mao.

79. Headdresses for Dignitaries of the Legislative Body. On the left: a Tam Quang Mao: in the centre: a Hon Nguon Mao: to the right: a Nhut Nguyet Mao

80.  A priest's mitre: a Nguon Thien Mao

 
81. Headdress for a student priest: a Khoi Khoa Mao

MISCELLANEOUS IMAGES

82. Personnel from the Caodaist Red Cross.
83 . The "Golden Book" of Caodaism.
84. Containers for the residue of incense offerings.

85. Vase for the burning of incense sticks.

86. Vase for the burning of supplications.

87. Perfume Burner.

88. Perfume Burner.

89. Phoenix Chandelier.

90. Phoenix Chandelier.

91. Chandelier

92. The gong used to give the signal "lay" during the prayers.

93. The "Mo" (aka "Wooden Fish") used for accompanying the chanting of prayers.

94. Plate for offerings.

95. Objects used during worship in their place on the altar.

A DAY IN THE LIFE OF HIS HOLINESS THE POPE OF CAODAISM

96. His Holiness Pham Cong Tac visits one of the building sites

97. His Holiness Pham Cong Tac visits one of the building sites

98. Visiting the site.

99. Working in his office.

100. His Holiness returns to the Ho Phap's Office.

101. His Holiness Ho Phap eats a meal.

102. His Holiness listens to the news on the radio.

103. His Holiness meditating at the Ho Phap's office.

104. His Holiness takes time off to play his favourite instrument.

A CAODAIST WEDDING

105. Accompanied by their whole family, the couple-to-be progress to the Great Divine Temple.

106. In the Temple...

107.  during the nuptial benediction.

108. Following the Priest, who accompanies them to the exit, the couple are now ready to go to their house.

109. After the ceremony everyone returns to the newlywed's home for a vegetarian meal with their family

CAODAIST DIGNITARIES

110. High Dignitaries of the Cuu Trung Dai or Executive Body From left to right:     Monseigneur Thuong Tuoc Thanh (Archbishop in charge of dignitaries). Monseigneur Thai Tu Thanh (Finances).
Monseigneur Thuong Sang Thanh (Rites). Monseigneur Thuong Mia Thanh (Health). Monseigneur Thuong Sach Thanh (Agriculture).
111. Monseigneur Thuong Sach Thanh Archbishop and High Dignitary of the Executive Body
112. Monseigneur Thai Tu Thanh
High Dignitary of the Executive Body
113. Monseigneur Thuong Mia Thanh High Dignitary of the Executive Body
114. Monseigneur Thuong Tuoc Thanh High Dignitary of the Executive Body
115. Monseigneur Thuong Sang Thanh High Dignitary of the Executive Body
116. Three Dignitaries of the Hiep Thien Dai or Legislative Branch From left to right: His Eminence Khai Dao Pham Tan Dai (Religious Administration). His Eminence Khai Phap Tran Duy Nghia (Social Administration). His Eminence Bao The Le Thien Phuoc (Religious Justice).
117. His Eminence Bao The Le Thien Phuoc (Religious Justice).

118. His Eminence Khai Phap Tran Duy Nghia (Social Administration).

119. His Eminence Khai Dao Pham Tan Dai (Religious Administration).

120. His Eminence Bao The Le Thien Phuoc in his office.

121. His Eminence Khai Phap Tran Duy Nghia in his office.

122. Female Dignitaries.
From Left to right:
The Venerable Huong Nhieu
The Venerable Huong Hieu
The Venerable Huong Lu
The Venerable Huong Nhuan

123. Female Dignitaries: The Venerable Huong Nhieu (Archbishop).

124. The Venerable Huong Lu (Archbishop).

125. The Venerable Huong Nhuan (Archbishop).

126. The Venerable Huong Hieu (Archbishop).

127. The Archbishop Huong Hieu proceeding with two disciples.

128. The Venerable Huong Hieu, female Archbishop accompanied by two disciples.

129. Three High Dignitaries in prayer before an altar set up outside the Temple.

130. The Venerable Huong Hieu

131. On the occasion of the festival of the Goddess Dieu Tri Kim Mau a high dignitary delivers her sermon.

132. On the occasion of the festival of the Goddess Dieu Tri Kim Mau a high dignitary delivers her sermon.

133. Dignitaries of the Executive Body.

134. Dignitaries and Priests of the Executive Body, up to the rank of Archbishop as well as some dignitaries of the Legislative Branch (those in the pointed white hats).

135. Under-dignitaries of the Hiep Thien Dai or Legislative Branch.

136. The Chaplains of the Caodaist Army.

137. Welcome nourishment for some young orphans.

138. Welcome nourishment for some young orphans.

139. Orphans gather at the Holy See.

140. His Holiness Pham Cong Tac attends a football game between a team from the Holy See and a team from the Catholic Mission.

141. The Holy See team.

142 .  The raising of the flag.

143. The raising of the flag.

144. Exhibition of wrestling by the under 10's.

147. Music.

148. A well-made pyramid!

REJOYCING ON THE OCCASION OF THE FESTIVAL OF DIEU TRI KIM MAU / HOLY MOTHER
(18 Sept 1948)
 

149. His Holiness arrives at the Temple to assist with the proceedings.

150. His Holiness watches the procession below.

151. Caodaist students during the festival.

152. The float representing the three saints: Confucius, The Buddha and Jesus Christ.

153. A float dedicated to the Human Spirit.

154. Young Vietnamese boys dressed as Negroes complete a "danse fantastique."

155. An "armoured" float!

156. A float celebrating ship building.

157. A float celebrating ship building.

158. The float of Joan of Arc

159. The information float.

160. The float of the Nine Female Buddhas / Cuu Vi Nu Phat.

167. The residence of His Holiness.


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